Wednesday, June 18, 2014

What are soft drinks doing to your children? Researchers say caffeinated drinks can affect girls and boys differently




Caffeine affects children in a far more complex way than previously though, researchers have found.

They say that after puberty, boys and girls experience different heart rate and blood pressure changes after consuming caffeine. 

Girls also experience differences in their response to caffeine during their menstrual cycles, the team found.

They say the finding could have a major effect on how much caffeine young people should be allowed to take.
 
Photo from: wkdq.com


'We found an interaction between gender and caffeine dose, with boys having a greater response to caffeine than girls, as well as interactions between pubertal phase, gender and caffeine dose, with gender differences present in post-pubertal, but not in pre-pubertal, participants,' said Jennifer Temple at the University at Buffalo.

'In this study, we were looking exclusively into the physical results of caffeine ingestion,' she said.

The findings also suggest that menstrual cycles can change the way caffeine affects girls.
'We found differences in responses to caffeine across the menstrual cycle in post-pubertal girls, with decreases in heart rate that were greater in the mid-luteal phase and blood pressure increases that were greater in the mid-follicular phase of the menstrual cycle.'

In the study, researchers examined 96 children, looking at their heart rates and blood pressure before and after giving them a caffeinated beverage or a placebo during six visits to the laboratory.

The children, who ranged in age from 8 to 17, also completed a questionnaire about their caffeine use.
Past studies have shown that caffeine increases blood pressure and decreases heart rate in children, teens and adults, including pre-adolescent boys and girls. 
However the new study of the first to spot the gender differences - and menstruation cycle effects.

Caffeine consumption by children and teenagers has increased in recent years, Temple said. This is possibly due to a greater availability of caffeinated beverages and energy drinks, she believes.

'While the data suggests that boys and girls respond differently to caffeine, both genders experienced cardiovascular effects of caffeine, she told Livescience.
'And while it does not suggest that caffeine is particularly harmful to children and adolescents, there is little evidence that caffeine consumption is beneficial to health in this population.'



The revolution of the sports car - the BMW i8 arrives in Kuwait

The world's first sustainable and most progressive sports car of our time



Kuwait – With its ultra-dynamic proporti
ons, elegantly sporty lines, low-slung silhouette and futuristic design features, BMW's i8 plug-in hybrid sports car is expected to cause a sensation on the roads when it goes on sale in Kuwait this month.  Signalling the future of sustainable motoring, the BMW i8 combines the performance and appeal of a sports car with the fuel consumption of a small car.

The BMW i8 was launched at an exclusive event by Ali Alghanim & Sons Automovie at the Prestige Ballroom, Prestige, The Avenues in Kuwait. Held on the 17th of June, the vehicle was introduced by Talal Alajmi, Showroom Manager, Ali Alghanim & Sons Automotive and Yousef Mustafa, Area Manager of BMW Group Middle East.



The BMW i8 is the second model after the BMW i3 to be unveiled by BMW i, the company's sub-brand focusing solely on developing sustainable products and services, that has helped affirm BMW Group's leadership as the world's most sustainable premium car company.

Both the exterior and interior of the emotionally-led 2+2-seater embody a revolutionary, pioneering take on the Sheer Driving Pleasure for which BMW is renowned. The BMW i8 features a completely new, exciting sports car design which includes sophisticated aerodynamics features and environmentally friendly materials.



It comprises BMW LifeDrive architecture, the worlds' first body architecture specifically designed and purpose-built for series production of electric and plug-in hybrid cars. The BMW i LifeDrive architecture is made up of two separate units:  the upper Life module that consists mainly of a high-strength and extremely lightweight passenger cell made from Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic.  The lower drive module consists of a 100% aluminium construction and integrates the battery, electric motor and suspension system. The use of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic is a first for a volume-production model.  It is the lightest available material that can be used in the construction of a car body without compromising on safety.




Powered by a 1.5-litre, three-cylinder BMW TwinPower Turbo petrol engine which, in typical BMW sports car fashion, drives through the rear wheels, the BMW i8’s intelligent hybrid system also capitalises on a potent electric motor which sends drive to the front wheels resulting in a combined power output of 362hp delivered to all four wheels.

When united, the dual motors (electric motor at the front and petrol engine at the rear) work in harmony enabling the BMW i8 to accelerate from 0 to 100km/h in 4.4 seconds while using just 2.1 litres of petrol per 100kms and emitting just 59g/km of emissions.

The BMW i8 has a top speed electronically limited to 250km/h, and can be operated solely in all electric drive (zero emissions) for around 37 kilometres - and the battery of the plug-in hybrid can be continuously charged by the petrol engine while driving. Due to its lightweight of just 1,485 kg, it provides a total drive range of more than 500 kilometres.



A sports car character and the typical BMW driver orientation are both equally prominent in the design of the BMW i8. The front view of the BMW i8 exudes sporting ability in its purest form. Large front apron air intakes arranged over several levels generate a powerful feeling of depth. The extremely broad BMW kidney grille stretches over to the slim headlights, accentuating the width of the BMW i8 and its road-focused stance. In addition, full-LED headlights are standard and innovative laser headlights, available as an option later this year, proving intense light that will illuminate the roads for up to 600m - double the distance of conventional LED lights. 



An all-embracing sustainability concept runs throughout the entire value chain of the BMW i8; carbon fibre production and vehicle assembly using 100-per cent renewable electricity; high proportion of recycled materials; use of materials manufactured and treated in an environmentally friendly manner.

The BMW i8 is the future of sports performance driving, offering unparalleled fuel efficiency in a light and lithe Coupé body that takes nothing away from the thrill of driving a thoroughbred performance car.